Surrogacy tourism - Wombs for Rent
Often contracted through hospitals in India.Surrogates live in dormatories or "baby farms."
Ethics issues: Exploitation, concept of family, comodification of physiological process.
Surrogates are paid $5000 - $7000, a relatively low cost.
Donors enticed to go abroad for removal and subsequent tranplantation of their kidneys.
The first human kidney transplant - Boston 1954
Transplantation of the liver followed in 1963 and heart in 1967
The kidney is the most wanted organ for transplantation
Worldwide about 1.2 million suffer from kidney failure. In Israel the average wait is 4 years. Worldwide 50k transplants are performed annually.About 285k people are on dialysis in the US.
Laws about Organ Transplantation
Brazil - illegal to sell organs (1997)
1998 law -all Brazilian adults are organ donors at death
Kidney sales are legal and regulated
Transplantation of Human Organs Act of 1994
Altruistic donation of organs from close family members
Donation b y those who are emotionally attached to the recipients
The Act permits transplantation of various cadaver organs including kidneys
Countries practicing Black market organ trans
India, China, Russia, Turkey, Moldova, Romania...
Partners in Black Market Organ Transplant Business in India
- Surgeons and medical teams
- managers of hospitals
- organ brokers
- jobless people
- tourism industry
Recipients pay as much as $25k in India
Measures to decrease organ gap
- Prevention of renal failure
- Increase of domestic supply
- Routine recovery from cadavers-implied consent
- legalising sale of organs
- legalizing rewarded gifting of unrelated donors
- upgrading facilities to harvest and transport organs from resource poor settings
- Lack of respect for person
- Social Justice
- Violation of Human Dignity